C4V’s Research & Development facilities are based within the Innovation Technology Centre (ITC) located at Binghamton University NEW YORK. The Innovation Technology Centre (ITC) provides modern collaborative facilities for research, development, education, and administrative control in the physical sciences and engineering disciplines. The ITC comprises 445,000 ft2 of space as result of a $181M capital investment over the last decade. The complex features the New York Centre of Excellence for Small Scale Systems Integration and Packaging (S3IP) and is home to the Thomas J. Watson School of Engineering, which includes electrical, computer, mechanical, and biomedical engineering. The Smart Energy building hosts C4V’s advanced battery research centre that can develop and test various advanced battery materials and next generation commercial batteries.
The ITC complex shown above hosts C4V’s corporate offices, advanced diagnostic lab, LIB materials (cathode /anode etc) development facility, LIB cell and battery manufacturing facility, which also includes in-house Battery Management System manufacturing capabilities.
The Centre of Excellence in Small Scale Systems Integration and Packaging (S3IP) is the nexus for research efforts of the following campus centres: The NorthEast Centre for Chemical Energy Storage (NECCES), the Energy-Smart Electronic Systems Centre (ES2), the Centre for Advanced Microelectronic Manufacturing (CAMM), the Integrated Electronics Engineering Centre (IEEC), and the Centre for Autonomous Solar Power (CASP). By co-locating C4V within the engineering and the physical sciences faculties (and affiliated research centres), collaboration and cross-fertilization between colleagues in the multiple disciplines is naturally promoted and enabled.
This is consonant with C4V’s vision and strategic plan emphasizing multidisciplinary R&D activities to develop next generation lithium ion battery materials and components. C4V has been strategically located in Binghamton Universities Centre of Excellence building, providing unrestricted access the diverse advanced technical R&D facilities. C4V has been granted long term access to these high-tech facilities by the New York State Government, under authorised access programs.
The Centre of Excellence in Small Scale Systems Integration and Packaging (S3IP) also provides central coordination for core lab facilities serving multiple research centres and industrial partners. Key among these are the Analytical and Diagnostics Lab (ADL), an 8,000ft2 laboratory providing $25M in research instrumentation for the characterization and analysis of materials, surfaces, and interfaces in physical materials, especially those relevant to electronics manufacturing. The ADL is staffed by PhD-level materials scientists and engineers with extensive industrial experience. The ADL instrumentation supports faculty research in engineering and the physical and life sciences, industrial analyses and problem-solving relating to materials, diagnostics, analysis, characterization, and device fabrication processing. Instrumentation also supports electronic systems integration, packaging development for conventional flexible electronics, industrial and consumer electronics.
The ADL contains a host of measurement and characterization tools. Most relevant to this project include: spectroscopic ellipsometer; atomic force microscope; ion milling; dimple grinder; SEM; TEM; JEOL2100 (scanning) transmission electron microscope, the capabilities of this TEM/STEM include Z-contrast imaging, high resolution electron microscopy, XEDS, EELS, elemental mapping, field-free Lorentz imaging, and tomography. This microscope will be utilized for in situ study of oxide reduction using a heating/environmental TEM holder; TEM sample preparation equipment; Dual-beam focused-ion-beam (FEI Nova 600 Nanolab); High resolution field emission scanning electron microscope (Zeiss Supra 55 SEM); Environmental LaB6 SEM (Zeiss EVO50XVP); Atomic force microscope (AFM): Veeco Dimension 3100; X-ray imaging and analysis; and a Hall Effect (Van der Pauw): Ecopia HMS 3000.
Additional core laboratories include the Integrated Electronics Engineering Center (IEEC) Failure Diagnostics and Reliability Laboratory, which provides environmental test chambers and instrumentation for diagnosis of faults in electronics, as well as supporting research on thermal management for electronics, solder mechanics, high temperature solders, 2.5D/3D chip stacking technology, and growth into power electronics packaging and packaging-related technology for secure electronics. The Centre for Autonomous Solar Power (CASP) Laboratory includes capabilities for constructing thin-film photovoltaic, supercapacitor, and thermoelectric devices, with particular emphasis on earth-abundant, low toxicity materials. The Nanofabrication Facility features a class-1000 clean room for construction of nano-engineered devices and materials, fabrication and coating. Its microfabrication tool set includes: Electron beam evaporation; Sputter deposition; Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition; Reactive ion etch; Rapid thermal processing; Contact alignment; Thermal evaporation; Reflectometer; Wet benches; and a Critical point dryer. In addition, C4V have access to the Cornell Nanofabrication Facility, about 50 miles away, which has an extensive collection of microfabrication tools.
The following national research and other centres are integral to the C4V’s research and development agenda and these facilities, located at Binghamton University, are available to the program:
NorthEast Centre for Chemical Energy Storage (NECCES), U.S Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Frontier Research Centre
The NECCES labs and offices, a combined 4000 ft2, are located in the newly constructed Centre of Excellence Building at Binghamton University. NECCES has Bruker D8 powder x-ray diffractometer, Scintag XDS-2000 X-Ray Diffractometer, Superconducting Quantum Interface Device (SQUID) Design MPMS and Physical Property Measurement System (PPMS), 4 glove boxes, over 120 channels of coin- cell battery cyclers, thermal analysis and data analysis computers with software, including the Thermogravimetric Analyzer. NECCES also has access to Argonne National Laboratory-APS, Brookhaven National Laboratory-NSLSII, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory—Advance Light Source. Additionally, NECCES started-up a lithium battery- grade Dry Room, in January of 2017. The LIB Dry Room is fully equipped with materials, electrode fabrication machines and cell fabrication equipment. This facility is used for fundamental materials studies all the way up to prototyping.
The Centre for Advanced Micro Electronics Manufacturing (CAMM)
CAMM serves as the New York Node of the Innovation Institute for Flexible Hybrid Electronics Manufacturing (FHE-MII). The CAMM facilities feature a 10,000 sq ft. cleanroom area located at the University’s facility on the Huron Campus, in Endicott, NY (a former IBM site). The CAMM tools consist of a panel line for process/product research and development for flexible or rigid substrates ranging from 4” wafers up to 20”x20”. Primary equipment includes: Tamarack large-area aligner/scanning broad band exposure tool for features down to 4μm; KDF sputter down physical vapor deposition system for metals and insulators; spin coater and spin wet process tool for substrates up to 7”; optical microscope with measurement system; vacuum laminator; Unijet double headed inkjet printer with a 200mm square stage equipped with vacuum chuck for printing up to 1200 dpi; recently upgraded Optomec AJ 300 aerosol inkjet high resolution printer with a UA MAX enhanced ultrasonic atomizer for increased material output and more consistent printing, wide feature print head, to allow for one pass printing of millimeter sized features, and updated KEWA interface, allowing compatibility with AutoCAD15 greatly enhancing design and toolpath data creation, other capabilities include +/- 1μm stage resolution, the ability to use materials with viscosity from 1-1000cP and, printing over non-uniform substrates with features as small as 10μm; Xennia 3000 printer with range of travel: 600 mm x 600 mm, for up to 300 mm substrates, CCD camera for alignment, measuring system accuracy ±3 μm, repetition accuracy <1μm, and typically three Xaar 760 GS8 print heads.
The CAMM also has a unique integrated roll-to-roll (R2R) research line for process/product research and development with rolled based substrates ranging from 6” to 24” wide webs with thicknesses from 5 to 150 microns. Roll-to-roll tooling includes: Azores high precision large-area photolithography to image and stitch single micron features with better than 1μm registration capability; CHA Industries high vacuum physical vapor deposition coater for metals; Bobst Optilab high vacuum physical vapor deposition coater for insulators and semiconductor coatings; “Etched-In-Time” linear plasma reactive ion dry etch source in zone 2 of the Bobst Optilab system; Energy Conversion Devices Integral Vision (ECD-IV) in line roll-to-roll defect optical inspection system; Northfield Automation roll-to-roll handling systems; vacuum lamination; Kraemer Koating cleaning and wet process system; Hollmuller-Sigmund (ME Baker) wet process systems for cleaning, develop, etch and strip operations. Large wet process tools are plumbed directly in to the Huron campus industrial scale waste water treatment facilities.
The CAMM lab has additional infrastructure for materials analysis including: a) Dektak XT Profilometer capable of measurements down to tens of nanometer scale, with accuracy +/- 30A with a manual 300 mm round stage, low-force options down to 0.03 g for soft and flexible substrates, analysis capabilities include examining surface roughness, film stress and substrate deformation; b) Filmetrics F20-UV: for optical transmission spectra measurement between 190 to 1100nm for substrates up to 40μm thick; c) JANDEL RM3- AR 4 point probe system with auto-detection and manual input of currents from 10nA up to 1A and compliance voltage up to 40V; d) SemiProbe PS4L M12 probe station equipped for 300mm substrates, a compound microscope for high resolution inspection, four multipurpose manipulators for needle probing at frequencies up to 500MHz with 5μm resolution, a computer interfaced Keithley 2636B two channel source measurement unit for high precision electrical measurements, down to 0.1fA for I-V characterization; e) various optical microscopes equipped with digital cameras.
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