Generation II improvements will focus upon optimizing anode and cathode formulations and introducing a more thermally-stable electrolyte to enhance performance.
While the anode and cathode materials determine the theoretical limits for a battery’s storage capacity, the electrolyte, serving as an interfacial lithium transport medium for either electrode, determines the power density, imparts electrochemical stability within the cell via passivation of both anode and cathode surface layers, and to a large degree dictates a battery’s chemical response to non-equilibrium conditions like overheating which can lead to fires.
Being rather sensitive to environmental temperatures, current commercial electrolytes limit the use of lithium-ion cells to narrow temperature ranges, requiring the use of an electronic battery management system and other forms of insulation to maintain thermal conditions optimal for cycle life and performance.
C4V has identified and is working with an electrolyte that would lower the maintenance requirement for keeping the batteries cool. So far, this electrolyte has demonstrated stability up to 65C. Implementation for volume manufacturing is expected by 2021 with concurrent improvements in energy density and volumetric capacity to 300Wh/kg and 650Wh/L, respectively.
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